Microbe Directory: Antimicrobial Efficacy

Few microorganisms can escape the effects of Microban®. Learn more about the bacteria, mold, yeast and other microbes that our antimicrobial technologies have been successfully tested against.

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Gram-Positive Bacteria

mbns18_Enterococcus Bacteria

Enterococcus (hirae & faecalis)

Description: Gram-positive cocci; endogenous in soil, food, water and plants; associated with both community and hospital-acquired infections; opportunistic agents

Modes of Transmission: Direct contact; endogenous; HAI-VRE

Common Infections: Urinary tract infections; bloodstream infections; wound infections; endocarditis; intra-abdominal/pelvic wounds; surgical site infections

Environments: Enterobacters reside in the digestive tracts of animals and humans, as well as soil, water, decaying vegetation, and sewage. It is a contaminant of dairy products. Involved in hospital acquired infections of the blood, wounds, surgical incisions, and urinary tratcs of immunocompromised patients

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: 5 days - 4 months

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

mbns18_Listeria Monocytogenes

Listeria monocytogenes

Description: Gram-positive rod; found in soil and vegetable matter; may colonize GI tract; most likely to sicken pregnant women and their newborns, adults aged 65+ and people with weakened immune systems 

Modes of Transmission: Food borne (raw milk, soft cheeses, vegetables and ready-to-eat meats); perinatal transmission; direct contact; contaminated equipment

Common Infections: Perinatal listeriosis (may be intrauterine infection) or meningitis; adults may develop meningoencephalitis, bacteremia, endocarditis and focal infections

Environments: Commonly found in refrigerated foods. Listeriosis is a serious infection usually caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: 1 day - months

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

mbns18_Staphylococcus Aureus

Staphylococcus aureus

Description: Gram-positive cocci in grape-like clusters

Modes of Transmission: Endogenous; direct contact; unwashed hands; contaminated foods and equipment

Common Infections: Abscess; pneumonia; empyema; osteomyelitis; sepsis; bacteremia; endocarditis; strains with acquired resistance to Methicillin (MRSA) common in hospitals; enteroxins; toxic shock syndrome (TSS)

Environments: S. aureus is commonly found on moist skin folds. It grows in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts of humans. S. aureus is transmitted through direct contact between individuals, as well as via fomites such as contaminated clothing, bed sheets, medical instruments, food contact surfaces and foods

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: 7 days - 7 months

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

Gram-Negative Bacteria



Description: Gram-negative V&S-shaped rod; enteric; found in pigs, poultry, birds, cats and dogs

Modes of Transmission: Contact with contaminated feces, soil, water and food; sexually transmitted

Common Infections: Gastroenteritis; sepsis; meningitis; abscesses; urinary tract infections; peritonitis; pancreatitis

Environments: Campylobacters are frequently isolated from from surface water and water supplies. Humans acquire the bacterium by consuming contaminated food, milk, or water contaminated with infected animal feces. The most common source of infection is contaminated poultry

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: Up to 6 days

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

mbns18_Enterobacter Aerogenes​

Enterobacter aerogenes

Description: Gram-negative; facultative anaerobic rod; enteric

Modes of Transmission: Unwashed hands; contaminated medical devices and instrumentation; commonly consumed in food and water; endogenous

Common Infections: Urinary tract infections; wound; bloodstream infections; pneumonia; neonatal meningitis; neurologic complications; opportunistic infections in patients exposed frequently to antibiotics, invasive procedures and indwelling

Environments: Enterobacters reside in the digestive tracts of animals and humans, as well as soil, water, decaying vegetation, and sewage. It is a contaminant of dairy products. Involved in hospital acquired infections of the blood, wounds, surgical incisions, and urinary tracts of immunocompromised patients

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: Highly persistent

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

mbns18_Escherichia Coli

Escherichia coli (E. coli)

Description: Gram-negative; facultative anaerobic rod; enteric; ubiquitous in humans; presence in water considered indication of fecal contamination; reservoir; GI and female GU tracts; opportunistic pathogen

Modes of Transmission: Fecal-oral route; raw milk, fruits and vegetables contaminated with ruminant feces; person to person contact; waterborne transmission of neonatal infections through maternal genital tract

Common Infections: Urinary tract infections; septicemia; neonatal meningitis; 5 major GI infections including infantile diarrhea

Environments: E. coli is the most common and most important bacteria found in the intestinal tract of animals, humans, in soil, and on plants and decaying vegetation. Its presence is indicative of fecal contamination in the environment

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: 1.5 hours - 16 months

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

mbns18_Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Description: Aerobic Gram-negative rod; normal flora intestinal genital tracts

Modes of Transmission: Contact with ulcerative genital lesions; endogenous

Common Infections: Lobar pneumonia; lung abscess; urinary tract infections; bacteremia, enteritis and meningitis; wound infections; rhinoscleroma

Environments: Normally found in the human intestines,here they do not cause disease). They are also found in human stool (feces). In healthcare settings, Klebsiella infections commonly occur among sick patients who are receiving treatment for other conditions. Klebsiella bacteria can be spread through person-to-person contact or, less commonly, by contamination of the environment. Patients in healthcare settings also may be exposed to Klebsiella when they are on ventilators (breathing machines), or have intravenous (vein) catheters or wounds (caused by injury or surgery). Unfortunately, these medical tools and conditions may allow Klebsiella to enter the body and cause infection. Klebsiella is a common contaminant in dairy facilities

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: 2 hours - >30 months

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

mbns18_Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Description: Enteric, aerobic Gram-negative rod; worldwide distribution in water, soil, plants

Modes of Transmission: Contaminated water, solutions; foods; exposure to contaminated equipment

Common Infections: Community-acquired infections in nonimmunocompromised; folliculitis acquired in swimming pools, water slides. whirpools and hot tubs; swimmer's ear, more severe ear infections in diabetics and elderly with temporal bone and basilar skull osteomyelitis; meningitis; eye infections associated with contact lens use; endocarditis in intravenous-drug users; leading cause of healthcare acquired respiratory tract infections; UTI, wound infections, peritonitis in persons on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and bacteremia particularly in burn patients; an unusual "mucoid" phenotype chronically infects 70-80% of adolescents with cystic fibrosis

Environments: Ubiquitous in the environment, but most problematic in healthcare environments; found in aqueous solutions, sink traps, hydrotherapy and respiratory equipment

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: 6 hours - 16 months

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes


Salmonella (enterica & typhimurium)

Description: enteric, facultative anaerobic Gram-negative rod

Modes of Transmission: Fecal-oral, sources include: contaminated milk, water, reptiles, amphibians, eggs, ice cream, meringue, shellfish, undercooked chicken, fish and pork

Common Infections: Salmonellosis; typhoid fever; mild enteritis; food-poisoning or gastroenteritis; rapidly fatal septicemia; Category B bioterrorism agent

Environments: Surfaces in food environments, with most infections in humans resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with animal feces; S. typhi only found in humans; non-typhi forms found in pet turtles, chickens and uncooked eggs

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: Salmonella enterica, 1 day; Salmonella typhimurium, 6 hours - 4.2 years

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

Mbns18 Shigella Dysenteriae​

Shigella dysenteriae

Description: Enteric, facultative anaerobic Gram-negative rod

Modes of Transmission: Fecal-oral; ingestion of contaminated food and water; food handlers; sexual transmission; contact

Common Infections: Shigellosis; bloody diarrhea (dysentery) and nonbloody diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps; complications include hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and Reiter's disease; Category B bioterrorism agent

Environments: Shigella is primarily associated with poor personal hygiene and ineffective sewage treatment. People become infected primarily by ingesting bacteria on their own hands and secondarily by consuming contaminated food

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: 2 days - 5 months

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

Mold & Yeast

Mbns18 Aspergillus Niger

Aspergillus niger

Description: mold; found in soil, natural debris, air handling systems, indoor and outdoor air; worldwide

Modes of Transmission: contact; trauma; inhalation; ingestion

Common Infections: opportunistic infections; allergic reactions

Environments: Commonly found in the air and on surfaces in antique shops, greenhouses, saunas, farms, mills, construction areas, flower shops, and summer cottages

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: Will survive where there is cellulose, moisture, and warm temperature

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

Blank 25Px

Aureobasidium pullulans

Description: Yeast-like mold; worldwide

Modes of Transmission: Contact

Common Infections: Rare infections; hypersensitivity pneumonitis or "humidifier lung" characterized by shortness of breath, cough, fever, chest infiltrates, and acute inflammatory reaction; catheter-related septicemia

Environments: Ubiquitous organism found in plant debris, soil, wood, textiles, and indoor air environment

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: Can survive for extended periods because it is highly adaptable to stressful environmental conditions

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

Mbns18 Candida Albicans

Candida albicans

Description: yeast; normal gastrointestinal, oral, skin flora; worldwide

Modes of Transmission: contact; endogenous

Common Infections: opportunistic; IV and central line infections; thrush; vaginitis; skin and nail infections; meningitis

Environments: Candidiasis is among the most frequent hospital acquired infection worldwide, leading to immense financial implications

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: 1-120 days, can persist for extended periods due to biofilm formation

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

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Chaetomium globosum

Description: mold; found in soil, air, plant debris; all types of climates from extremes of Himalayas to deserts

Modes of Transmission: contact

Common Infections: contaminant; cutaneous infections. brain abscesses, peritonitis

Environments: commonly found contaminating damp wood buildings throughout North America and Europe. Also found on wet tiles

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: will survive where there is cellulose, moisture, and warm temperature

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

Mbns18 Penicillium

Penicillium species

Description: mold (room temperature) and yeast (body temperature) phases; found in soil, plant material, indoor air; Southeast Asia and China; over 30 species

Modes of Transmission: contact; soil exposure; trauma; inhalation

Common Infections: keratitis; endocarditis; pulmonary and skins infections

Environments: species of Penicillium are ubiquitous soil fungi preferring cool and moderate climates, commonly present wherever organic material is available.  They are among the main causes of food spoilage. Penicillium species are present in the air and dust of indoor environments, such as homes and public buildings. The fungus can be readily transported from the outdoors, and grow indoors using building material or accumulated soil to obtain nutrients for growth. Penicillium growth can still occur indoors even if the relative humidity is low, as long as there is sufficient moisture available on a given surface. A British study determined that Aspergillus- and Penicillium-type spores were the most prevalent in the indoor air of residential properties, and exceeded outdoor levels.Even ceiling tiles can support the growth of Penicillium (if the relative humidity is 85% and the moisture content of the tiles is greater than 2.2%)

Survival Times on Hard Surfaces: will survive where there is cellulose, moisture, and warm temperature

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

Blank 25Px

Trichoderma viride

Description: mold; found in soil, plant materials; prefers climates with moderate temperatures

Modes of Transmission: inhalation

Common Infections: lung infections

Environments: occur worldwide in soil and decaying organic matter

Survival Times on Hard Surfaces: can survive for extended periods because it is highly adaptable to stressful environmental conditions

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria 

Mbns18 Mrsa

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

See Staphylococcus aureus

Mbns18 Vre

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)

See Enterococcus


Mbns18 Algae


Symptoms of Infection: many types of algae can form blooms.  Freshwater harmful algal blooms have the ability to produce toxins that are dangerous to other organisms such as humans, dogs, and livestock

Environments: Algae are a diverse group of aquatic organisms that have the ability to conduct photosynthesis. Certain algae are familiar to most people;  e.g. seaweeds (such as kelp or phytoplankton), pond scum or the algal blooms in lakes. Algae can affect water characteristics in two ways: (1) algae can alter organoleptic properties and (2) certain cyanobacteria can produce toxins that can cause diarrhea as an acute effect and cancer in the ultimate instance

Survival Time on Hard Surfaces: harmful algal blooms will remain as long as there are favourable conditions, including warmth, sunlight and low flow rates. Blooms can last from weeks to months and it is difficult to predict when they will clear

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

Mbns18 Bed Bugs

Bed Bugs

Symptoms of Infestation: bites on the skin are a poor indicator of a bed bug infestation. Bed bug bites can look like bites from other insects (such as mosquitoes or chiggers), rashes (such as eczema or fungal infections) or even hives. Some people do not react to bed bug bites at all

Environments: Bed Bugs like to hide in small cracks and crevices close to a human environment. They can be found behind baseboards, wallpaper, upholstery, and in furniture crevices

Survival Times on Hard Surfaces: when living in warm conditions, bed bugs will usually try to feed at regular intervals. Adult bed bugs can survive for about five months without a blood meal

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes

Mbns18 Dust Mites

Dust Mites

Symptoms of Infestation: allergy symptoms: sneezing, runny nose, itchy/red, watery eyes, nasal congestion, itchy nose, roof of mouth or throat, postnasal drip, cough, facial pressure or pain

Environments: dust mites are tiny microscopic relatives of the spider and live on mattresses, bedding, upholstered furniture, carpets and curtains.These tiny creatures feed on the flakes of skin that people and pets shed daily and they thrive in warm and humid environments

Survival Times on Hard Surfaces: adult dust mites live for about a month and female dust mites live for about 8 to 10 weeks

Inhibited by Microban®: Yes